The universe is made up of photons, protons, electrons, and neutrinos plus space, time, and gravity. The neutrons are composed of an electron and a proton, and they convert between neutron to an electron and a proton, can then recombine to reform a neutron. Each conversion process is assisted by the interaction of a neutrino, so the neutron is not unique, however it appears that the neutrino acts as the ‘catalyst particle’ within the nucleons of a nucleus. Neutrinos are possibly, wholly responsible for the reaction.
Spherical Geometry, it seems, is the common link. Here, Time is considered to be a dimension and a vector. We live in a universe that has more than just four dimensions. Space has three dimensions that give us our volumetric portions of length, width, and depth. Vectors of unique unit type, and their inverse, opposites go to form each linear dimension, yet everything that we have been taught is in terms of linearity, instead of terms of spherical rotation.
A Dynamic Hypersurface, is based on spherical coordinates, and is viewed as a linearly mobile, rotating, point sized structural object composed of one or more Relationship unit-vectors, in a 4 degrees of freedom of rotation (4DFR) Multi-vectored Space-Time-Mass environment. Each Hypersurface type represents a configuration of a 4D Point Structure, and as viewed in the diagram, from our environmental view they all tend to look the same:
In string theory, the extra dimensions are small and wrapped up into tiny little strings or M-Branes and P-Branes. Here, they’re just the same as the other dimensions. The extra dimension of extension is just ninety degrees away from everything we know and see. What we gain with just one extra degree of freedom in rotation is one more dimension of extension. Having one more degree of freedom, allows us to imagine a view of our 4D environment collapsed to a curved surface on a 6D Hyper-object from more than just the parallel or end view. Four degrees of freedom apply to Dynamic Hypervectors of Extension, Time-Flow and Dynamic Mass.
This is our 3D+t view of any of these seven 6D structures, no matter where we looked, or what direction we were looking, and should one come across one of these, try to remember it, however, typically one won’t even see the above views as the individual Dynamic Hypersurfaces are too small to see, unless somehow they are combined to form a macro-sized structure viewable to the naked eye. Each structure has the same two D-R unit-vectors; each is a 2DF Hypervector rotating in one plane perpendicular to the other. Our view of any of the structures, rotated 90 degrees left, right, up, or down typically would look the same. Because of the circular nature of the structures, trying to visualize the structures, in linear 2D or 3D, or 4D, or 5D just by math has not been the best approach mainly because of the lack of any real experience to base the math. It is like giving Mr. 3D a choice of another axis’ to rotate about but all he can see is an infinite number of directions to turn (a full circle of them) to but can’t fathom how to physically turn about any one of them. However, maybe he can rotate himself and a section of his ‘Plane of Reference’ through the higher dimensional gelatin to gain a better perspective of his gelatin.
These are the 5D and 6D side views of the 6D rotational geometrical structures that form everything from the smallest of structures to the largest of structures. The curved ‘fabric’ spacetime Einstein had imagined exists in six dimensions as curved spacetime, with each dynamic surface element (dx, dy) being ‘flat’, just like any 2D surface in our 3D1T world, as our current correct observation tells us that spacetime is ‘flat’ in 4D. Both cases are true. The Dynamic Hypersurface (see cross-sections above) is exactly a ‘surface’…over a six dimensional object that supports a flattened 3D1T (4D) ‘volumetric’ structure within the Hypersurface. This condition is exactly similar to that of Mr. 3D in his 2D1T world. Yet, these same structures are in evidence in our world, we just can’t see them from a side view like they are shown above because we are linear 3D1T and they are 6D. Surface of a sphere is calculated from 4πr^2, and by integration to get the volume of the sphere, 4/3πr^3, by further integration we can achieve a formula of calculation for a Hypersurface as 1/3πr^4.